Skip Global Navigation to Main Content
Skip Breadcrumb Navigation
Understanding the U.S.A.

Media

The average American, according to a recent study, spends about eight hours a day with the print and electronic media -- at home, at work, and traveling by car. This total includes four hours watching television, three hours listening to radio, a half hour listening to recorded music, and another half hour reading the newspaper.

The central role of information in American society harks back to a fundamental belief held by the framers of the U.S. Constitution: that a well-informed people is the strongest guardian of its own liberties. The framers embodied that assumption in the First Amendment to the Constitution, which provides in part that "Congress shall make no law...abridging the freedom of speech or of the press." A corollary to this clause is that the press functions as a watchdog over government actions and calls attention to official misdeeds and violations of individual rights.

The U.S. media today is frequently known as the Fourth Estate, an appellation that suggests the press shares equal stature with the other branches of government created by the Constitution. The press, or "Fourth Estate" plays a vital role as a guardian of U.S. democracy. That role is guaranteed by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789, stipulating that Congress not enact any laws abridging freedom of the press.

U.S. media have traveled a long road since the first newspaper was published in Boston, Massachusetts in 1690. Within 50 years, magazines also began appearing in several major American cities. The advent of commercial radio at the beginning of the 20th century ended print's monopoly of the media in America, giving nationwide and, later, global audiences unprecedented access to live audio programs. Television, an even more powerful medium, entered the scene shortly after World War II. Defying predictions of their decline, the other media have diversified to confront television's dominant appeal. Satellite technology has allowed U.S. TV networks, especially cable networks, to reach overseas audiences anywhere on the globe. Interactive media, fueled by the advance of digital technology and the growing convergence of the computer, telephone and cable television, represent the principal trend of the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries.

 Online Reading

General

About America: Edward R. Murrow, Journalism at Its Best (published by Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State) (PDF file, 979KB)

The Media and Society (the third in a series of articles by Fredric A. Emmert exploring the media of the United States) (PDF file, 58KB)

The Media's Role in Changing the Face of U.S. Courts (a discussion on the growing interaction between media and the courts) (PDF file, 56KB)

Portrait of the USA: The Media and Their Messages (published by Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State) (PDF file, 61KB)

An Unfettered Press (published by Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State) (PDF file, 559KB)

Freedom of the Press

A Free Press (Electronic Journal, Bureau of International Information Program, U.S. Department of State) (PDF file, 335KB)

Freedom of Information Act Guide (U.S. Department of Justice)

Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment (CRS Report) (PDF file, 238KB)

Freedom of the Press (Article, Electronic Journal, Bureau of International Information Program, U.S. Department of State) (PDF file, 290KB)

Seeking Free & Responsible Media (Electronic Journal, Bureau of International Information Program, U.S. Department of State) (PDF file, 260KB)

Media Ethics

Code of Ethics (Society of Professional Journalists) (PDF file, 63KB)

Handbook of Independent Journalism (published by Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State) (PDF file, 815KB)

Journalistic Code (Voice of America)

Media and Ethics (Electronic Journal, Bureau of International Information Program, U.S. Department of State) (PDF file, 476KB)

A Responsible Press Office: An Insiders Guide (published by Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State) (PDF file, 332KB)

Media and New Technology

Media Emerging (Electronic Journal, Bureau of International Information Program, U.S. Department of State) (PDF file, 3.93MB)

Media Making Change (Electronic Journal, Bureau of International Information Program, U.S. Department of State, December 2007) (PDF file, 1.72MB)

Media Awards and Grants

Joseph Pulitzer and The Pulitzer Prizes (published by Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State) (PDF file, 61KB)

The Pulitzer Prizes
(comprehensive list of grants with description, deadline and contact information)

Internet Links

Adobe Reader

  • Download Free
    Download Free

    All downloadable documents on this page are provided in PDF format.  To view PDFs you must have a copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader.  You may download a free version by clicking the link above.